References

"Did You Know?" References

10% of dogs have heart disease.
Atkins C, Bonagura J, Ettinger S, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of canine chronic valvular heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23(6):1142–1150.

Owners rate quality of life as the most important factor in treating dogs with CHF.
Oyama M et al. Perceptions and priorities of owners of dogs with heart disease regarding quality versus quantity of life for their pets. JAVMA. 2008;233:104–108.

About 75% of dogs over the age of 16 have valvular disease.
Guglielmini C. Cardiovascular diseases in the ageing dog: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Veterinary Research Communications. 2003;27(Suppl. 1):555–560.

In dogs, congenital defects of the heart account for only 6.8% of hospital admissions.
Tilley LP. Manual of Canine and Feline Cardiology, 4th Edition. St. Louis, MO. Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2008.

Valvular disease affects about 10% of dogs between 5 and 8 years of age, 20 to 25% of dogs between 9 and 12 years of age, and 30 to 35% of dogs over 13 years of age.
Sisson D. Valvular Heart Disease in Dogs. Abstract at WSAVA 2002.

Facts on Dog Tag

Valvular disease is 1.5 times more common in male dogs than females.*
Atkins C, Bonagura J, Ettinger S, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of canine chronic valvular heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23(6):1142–1150.

Heart disease is most likely to affect smaller dogs.*
Atkins C, Bonagura J, Ettinger S, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of canine chronic valvular heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23(6):1142–1150.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is most likely to affect large or giant breed dogs.*
O’Grady MR, Minors SL, O’Sullivan ML, Horne R. Effect of pimobendan on case fatality rate in Doberman pinschers with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22(4):897–904.

Site References

1. Atkins C, Bonagura J, Ettinger S, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of canine chronic valvular heart disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2009;23(6):1142–1150.

2. Rush JE. Chronic valvular heart disease in dogs. Proceedings from: 26th Annual Waltham Diets/OSU Symposium for the Treatment of Small Animal Cardiology, October 19–20, 2002.

3. Sisson D. Valvular heart disease in dogs. In: Proceedings from the WSAVA World Congress; October 3–6, 2002; Granada, Spain. Available at: http://www.vin.com/proceedings/Proceedings.plx?CID=WSAVA2002&PID=2532. Accessed January 21, 2011.

4. Guglielmini C. Cardiovascular diseases in the aging dog: Diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Vet Res Commun.2003;27(Suppl.1):555–560.

5. Ware WA. Cardiovascular Disease in Small Animal Medicine. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing Professional; 2007.

6. O’Grady MR, Minors SL, O’Sullivan ML, Horne R. Effect of pimobendan on case fatality rate in Doberman pinschers with congestive heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22(4):897–904.

7. VETMEDIN® (pimobendan) Chewable Tablets [package insert]. St. Joseph, MO: Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc.; 2007.

8. Häggström J, Boswood A, O’Grady M, et al. Effect of pimobendan or benazepril hydrochloride on survival times in dogs with congestive heart failure caused by naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease: the QUEST study. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22(5):1124–1135.

9. Lombard CW, Jöns O, Bussadori CM. Clinical efficacy of pimobendan versus benazepril for the treatment of acquired atrioventricular valvular disease in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2006;42(4):249–261.